Pubblicazioni

Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Dalle Nogare Chiara

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Public provision vs outsourcing of cultural services: evidence for Italian cities

Cultural policy often implies the transfer of public resources to private cultural institutions. In this contribution we focus on the determinants of a government’s choice between cultural transfers and in-house cultural production. We argue that in the cultural field transfers may be seen as a proxy for the value of outsourced services, and we make reference to the empirical literature on outsourcing of local public services. We consider Italian cities’ cultural policies in the1998-2008 period, a time when overall cultural expenditure shrank while cultural transfers increased. Using dynamic panel data analysis and controlling for specific characteristics of each city, we find that outsourcing of cultural services is negatively affected by cultural assets specificity and is more likely to occur in cities subject to fiscal stress. The results also highlight that the timing of elections affects the transfer of public resources to private cultural institutions.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Friel Martha Mary

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Understanding creativity and innovation in industrial design: an historical and empirical assessment

In the last decades, industrial design has been increasingly recognized as a sector combining elements of both artistic creativity and economic innovation. Using a unique dataset encompassing information on 326 top designers, 242 firms and 935 products from 1913 to 2000, we investigate the main patterns of the industrial design industry. First, we analyze the worldwide evolution of the creative sector in terms of industry structure, changes in product materials and agglomeration dynamics of both firms and designers. Second, we provide a preliminary quantitative investigation of designers’ creativity life-cycles. The paper contributes to the cultural economics literature by shedding light on the relations between creativity and innovation in creative industries.

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Autori

Salone Carlo | Segre Giovanna

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Culture and creativity in the territorial local systems. Tales in search for a theoretical scheme

The analysis presented in this paper deals with the topic of the integration of a cultural institution in old industrialised urban contexts, and concerns the use of cultural activities not only as factors of diversification of the local economy, but also as elements of innovation and cross-fertilisation for the former industrial functions. The cases of Biella industrial district and Saint-Etienne industrial area are described in light of the current debate on the culture-based urban and regional development. Attention is also paid to the experiences of Cittadellarte-Pistoletto Foundation and Cité du Design, two cultural institutions recently established in the above mentioned contexts and operating as important nodes of innovation and relations between the local and global networks.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Morando Federico

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

The future of museums in the digital age: new models of access and use of digital collections

The aim of this paper is to analyze how technological innovation is reshaping the role and mission of museums as producers and distributors digital images of cultural collections. Based on a collection of case studies the authors identify the main shifting or emerging patterns in models for access and use to digital cultural collections due to changing users’ behavior and structure of production and access cost in the cyberspace. These changes create several key challenges and threats to museums as to their role of leading providers of authoritative and trusted content, to the profitability of digital collections and the adoption of new metrics to assess their social impact and public mission.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Creative Atmosphere: cultural industries and local development

The aim of the paper is to develop an analytical framework for understanding and measuring the impact of cultural industries and creative activities in local development. Despite the great debate on the importance of cultural and creative industries in policy, academic and business circles, we still lack a grounded theoretical model to understand how these activities contributes to local development and how far enhancement of culture-based creativity may be linked to certain social and economic configurations in these industries. In order to better understand the role of cultural industries in local development we propose a novel framework, which tries to depict the main actors and structure of local systems of cultural production and under what conditions such systems are able to generate and express creative atmosphere.

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Autori

Saccone Donatella | Santagata Walter

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

How much diverse is the World Heritage list?

In 2005 UNESCO launched the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The aim of the Convention was to foster cultural diversity worldwide, having knowledge of the role of cultural diversity and cultural activities in promoting economic development. The World Heritage List can be considered a basic reference for the protection of cultural diversity as well. This requires that the properties in the List fairly represent the main expressions of the human activity, according to a harmonious development respectful of cultural diversity. The aim of the paper is twofold. First, by using the Shannon-Weaver’s index of diversity, we measure how much cultural diversity there has been in the World Heritage List since its beginning in 1978. In other words, we assess at which extent each culture is represented in the most important international system of cultural preservation and promotion. Second, we estimate the number of sites which guarantees the maximum level of cultural diversity and, then, we propose how to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. Results show that just after the first two years of activity, the cultural diversity attained a good level and kept this level high until now. Notwithstanding this general conclusion, we estimate that there is room for a further improvement in the diversity by increasing the number of sites filling the cultural categories not still represented. It will result in 371 additional sites. Once attained the number of sites which guarantees the maximum of cultural diversity, the main policy left is to improve the World Heritage system by increasing the quality of the properties. The tool we select to launch this new strategy is a tournament model, according to which each property can be challenged by an external site belonging to the same cultural category. As a final result, there will be the substitution of lower-quality World Heritage properties with higher-quality properties. The model also takes into account risks related to political and lobby activities undermining the whole quality of the system and is used as a base to propose solutions.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Culture, heritage and economic development – empowering developing countries

The paper provides new insights into the relationship between heritage preservation and the economic, social and institutional factors expressing countries’ level of development. While investments in heritage preservation are increasingly recognized as a strategy for development and poverty reduction, little research has been conducted to understand which conditions trigger the valorization of cultural resources. Using panel data and focusing on World Heritage, we find that poor countries can be affected by a vicious circle, in which the low level of development hinders culture promotion, while the failed exploitation of national heritage in turn hinders the possibility of culture based development strategies. Finally, we stress the importance of new international policies improving the representativeness of poor countries in UNESCO political institutions to avoid their marginalization in culture promotion, increase their empowerment and stimulate sensibility on the importance of culture as a development strategy.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

The political economy of World Heritage

The paper explores the main determinants affecting the nomination andselection process of World Heritage Sites. While World Heritage represents the most relevant cultural and natural assets for the humankind, little re-search has been conducted to understand the conditions infuencing the process of sites inscription. Using panel data, we provide evidence on the institutional and economic conditions of countries which affect the composition of the World Heritage List. In particular, we test whether political factors, such as the involvement of countries in the World Heritage Committee, infuence inscription of national heritage sites in the List. The paper contributes to the cultural economics literature by providing new insights on the political economy of conservation and promotion of heritage at the international level.

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Autori

Bertacchini Enrico | Saccone Donatella

Collana

Working Papers EBLA Centre

Searching for the determinants of World Heritage listing: an econometric analysis

The present paper provides empirical evidence of the main determinants affecting World Heritage listing across countries and time. While World Heritage represents the most relevant tangible cultural asset for the humankind, little research has been conducted to understand the conditions influencing the process of sites inscription. Using panel data, we provide a preliminary investigation about the relationship between world heritage sites per country and economic, social and institutional variables. In addition, we test whether additional political factors, such as the country involvement in the World Heritage Committee, influence inscription of national heritage sites in the list. The paper contributes to the cultural economics literature by addressing new insights on the determinants affecting the valorization of cultural heritage.

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